Friday, May 29, 2009
[originally posted by Insubria87]
HST: BERLUSCONI, TURIN-LYON WILL BE BUILT
(AGI) - Rome, 23 Feb. – The line Turin- Lyon will be built, said Premier Silvio Berlusconi in an interview to French daily Le Figaro on the eve of the Italy-France summit in Rome. ''A few weeks ago my government confirmed commissioner Mario Virano as president of the technical Observatory on the Turin-Lyon line'' he reminded. ''We want to speed up the completion of Corridor 5.
The high-speed train (HST) was part of our electoral programme, there is full agreement in the government, so the Turin-Lyon will be built. The development of infrastructures is a priority for us. We have reopened many building sites after the previous government had closed them due to environmentalist fanaticism.
It pleases me that an idea that was introduced when Italy was EU president in 2003 is gaining a foothold on European level: the emission of Eurobonds to finance big European infrastructures''.
Sunday, May 10, 2009
This autonomous region is officially called the Trentino-Alto Adige. It's made up of two provinces: The Trentino or Trento, which is basically Lombardian ethnically (Tridentum), and the Alto Adige (South Tyrol) or Bolzano, which is ethnically German. The South or Sud Tyrol is just that, the southern part of the historically Alpine German Tyrol, but which ended up under the control of the Republic of Italy after World War II. The Trento province is represented by a black eagle, and the South Tyrol is represented by a red eagle, as far as in their flags and arms, and which are combined in the regional flag. The above flag is of the Trento province. Trento is also the name of the capitol city of the province. The black eagle of the city of Trento arms is a mirror of the eagle on the flag of the Kingdom of the Lombards. As if this isn't all confusing enough, there is also the Ladin people, who speak an altogether separate language from Italian and German, and even have a distinct flag. We can cover them at another time.
There is an excellent website called Trentino: Our Ancestral Culture and Heritage, which covers a lot of what we can't here. I will not reproduce anything from this site, but will just place the link here. It covers much about Trentini in America as well. I realize that I can't even begin to cover this subject the way it should be, but I just wanted to get a start. We can get back to this, and other subjects, again.
History of Trentino (from Wikipedia webpage)
"The History of Trentino begins in the mid-Stone Age the valleys of what is now Trentino were already inhabited by man, the main settlements being in the valley of the Adige River, thanks for its milder climate. Scholars have supposed the first settlers (probably hunters) came from the Padana Plain and the Venetian Prealps, after the first glaciers started to melt at the end of the Pleistocene glaciations.
"Findings (in particular, sepultures) from the Mesolithic, have been discovered in several part of the province. These include the comuni of Zambana and Mezzocorona. A large area of a hunting-based settlement from the Neolithic has been found out near the lakes of Colbricòn, not far from the Rolle Pass.
"Around 500 BCE, the Raetians appeared in the Trentine territory, coming from the Central and Eastern Alps area. They settled in several valleys and improved and introduced new activities along with the traditional hunting: agriculture (wine, vegetables, cereals), breeding (ovines, goats, bovines and horses). From the Roman Age, a portion of the territory of current Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol made up the province of Raetia.
"This region was conquered by the Romans only in the 1st century BC. The definitive defeat of the Rhaetians, near Bolzano, occurred during the military campaigns in the Alps of Drusus and Tiberius (16-17 BC). Trento became a Roman municipium between in the 40s BC. During the reign of Emperor Claudius (41-54 AD) the Trentino was integrated in the Imperial roadnet with the construction of the Via Claudia Augusta Padana (from Ostiglia to the Resia Pass) and the Via Augusta Altinate (from Treviso to Trento, passing through the Valsugana).
"During the Late Antiquity, in the 5th century AD, the Trentino was invaded several times, from North and East: first by the Ostrogoths, then by the Bavarians and Byzantines and finally by the Lombards. With the latter's domination an idea of territorial identity of the province began to shape (Tridentinum territorium). In the same century the region became largely Christianized. In 774 the Trentino was conquered by the Franks and became part of the Kingdom of Italy, a sometimes vague entity included in what was to become the Holy Roman Empire.
"The first territorial unity of Trentino dates back to 1027, when emperor Conrad II officially gave the rule of the area to the Bishopric of Trent. This entity survived for some eight centuries and granted Trentino a certain autonomy, first from the Holy Roman Empire and then from the Austrian Empire.
"In the early 19th century the Trentine people participated actively to the resistance against the French invasion led by the Tyrolese Andreas Hofer. After the end of the Napoleonic era (1815), the Bishopric of Trent was dissolved and Trentino became part of the County of Tyrol, in which the majority of the population was German speaking. Though relatively well administered, and despite the presence of Trentine representants in the Diets of Innsbruck and Vienna, in the second half of the 19th century a movement (part of the general movement called Italian irredentism) arose with the aim of annexing the region to the Kingdom of Italy: this, however, was largely put forward by intellectuals like Cesare Battisti and Fabio Filzi, and met little support by the predominantly rural population.
"The Trentine territory was one of the main fronts of the conflict (1915-1918) between Italy and Austria-Hungary, and suffered heavy destruction. After the call to arms summoned by Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria on July 31, 1914, more than 60,000 Trentine fought for Austria, first against Russia and Serbia and, starting from 1915, also against Italians. More than 10,000 of them died, and many others were wounded or made prisoners. Further, hundreds of thousands of civilians were forced to abandon their native area when they were too near to the front lines. Many of them, captured by the Italian Army, were later transferred to Southern Italy as colonists.
"Annexation to Italy
"With the Treaty of Versailles (1919), the Trentino was annexed to Italy, together with the new Province of Bolzano-Bozen, firstly as part of Venezia Tridentina. The centralization process brought on by the Fascists reduced the autonomy that cities like Trento or Rovereto had enjoyed under the precedent Liberal governments, while many of the smaller comuni were united, reducing their number from the 366 under the Habsburg to 127.
"After World War II, the treaty signed by the Italian and Austrian Ministers of Foreign affairs, the Trentine Alcide De Gasperi and Karl Gruber, the autonomous Region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol was constituted (see Gruber-De Gasperi Agreement).
"In the following decades the main party in Trentino was Christian Democracy, while autonomistic instances found their voice in the Partito Popolare Trentino Tirolese (Trentine-Tyrolese Popular Party). In 1957 strife between Trentino and the largely German-speaking Bolzano-Bozen led to the diffusion of the slogan Los von Trient ("Away from Trento"). In 1972, finally, the regional authorities was largely handed over to the two provinces.
"In the 1960s and 1970s Trentino witnessed strong economic development, spurred mainly by the tourism sector and by the new autonomy. It is currently one of the richest and best developed Italian provinces.
Saturday, May 9, 2009
FIAT (from description on its Wikipedia webpage):
"Fiat S.p.A., an acronym for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (English: Italian Automobile Factory of Turin), is an Italian automobile manufacturer, engine manufacturer, financial and industrial group based in Turin in the Piedmont region. Founded in 1899 by a group of investors including Giovanni Agnelli. Fiat has also manufactured tanks and aircraft.
[Left: FIAT 1899 Model]
"Fiat based cars are constructed all around the world—the largest concern outside Italy is in Brazil (best seller). It also has factories in Argentina and Poland. Fiat has a long history of licensing its products to other countries regardless of local political or cultural persuasion. Joint venture operations are found in France, Turkey, Egypt (with the state owned Nasr car company), South Africa, India, and China.
"Agnelli's grandson Gianni Agnelli was Fiat chairman from 1966 until his death on 24 January 2003. However, from 1996, he only served as an "honorary" chairman, while the chairman was Cesare Romiti. After their removal, Paolo Fresco served as chairman and Paolo Cantarella as CEO. Umberto Agnelli then took over as chairman from 2002 to 2004. After Umberto Agnelli's death on 28 May 2004, Luca Cordero di Montezemolo was named chairman, but Agnelli heir John Elkann became vice chairman at age 28 and other family members are on the board. At this point, CEO Giuseppe Morchio immediately offered his resignation. Sergio Marchionne was named to replace him on 1 June 2004."
Fiat eyes new company with GM Europe, Chrysler (Yahoo News 5-3-09)
By Nicole Winfield, Associated Press Writer
ROME – Fiat Group SpA confirmed Sunday it was in talks to acquire General Motor's European operations with the aim of possibly creating a new company to also include its newly acquired Chrysler automaker.
Combined, the new automaker would have euro80 billion ($105 billion) in annual revenues, Fiat said in a statement.
Fiat said it was evaluating the possible spinoff of its auto business to form the core of the new company. Fiat Group Automobiles includes the Fiat, Alfa Romeo and Ferrari brands.
The statement was issued on the eve of a meeting in Berlin between Fiat Group CEO Sergio Marchionne and the German economy and foreign ministers to discuss Fiat's offer for GM's German unit, Opel.
GM Europe also includes the British company Vauxhall and the Swedish carmaker Saab.
GM has been trying to find investors for its noncore and unprofitable assets as part of a restructuring in which it has sought billions of dollars in aid from the U.S. government to avert collapse.
Opel has said it needs euro3.3 billion ($4.3 billion) to get through the economic crisis. The German government has said it doesn't foresee giving direct state aid. Chancellor Angela Merkel has suggested the government could help an Opel investor with loan guarantees.
Fiat said that over the next few weeks, Marchionne will be looking "to assess the viability of a merger of the activities of Fiat Group Automobiles (including the interest in Chrysler) and General Motors Europe into a new company."
"As part of this process, the group would evaluate several corporate structures, including the potential spinoff of Fiat Group Automobiles and the subsequent listing of a new company which combines those activities with the activities of General Motors Europe."
In an interview Sunday with Corriere della Sera, Fiat Chairman Luca Cordero di Montezemolo called GM's Opel an "ideal partner" and a possible takeover by Fiat an "extraordinary opportunity."
Fiat is not the only suitor for Opel, however. Last week, Canadian car parts maker Magna International Inc. presented German Economy Minister Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg with what the minister called a "rough concept for a commitment with Opel."
Guttenberg has said the German government would wait to determine its role in any full or partial Opel sale until after the U.S. government had weighed in.
Fiat, meanwhile, has pressed ahead with a takeover of Chrysler, with attorneys for the U.S. auto manufacturer saying the company would file a motion to sell substantially all of its assets to the Italian automaker.
In addition to Fiat Group Automobiles, the Fiat Group also includes its agricultural vehicles branch CNH and its Iveco trucking unit, as well as a media arm.
Associated Press reporter Colleen Barry contributed to this report.
Fiat is out to create automotive powerhouse (Yahoo News 5-4-09)
By Colleen Barry and Tom Krisher, AP Business Writers
MILAN – Fiat is trying to build a global automaking powerhouse out of parts scavenged from broken-down General Motors and Chrysler.
The Italian automaker struck a deal last week that could eventually give it a controlling interest in Chrysler, but its ambitions are bigger than that: Now it is negotiating to buy GM's main European unit, which includes the Opel and Vauxhall brands.
Fiat Group CEO Sergio Marchionne's grand plan is for Fiat to spin off the resulting automaker, which he said would be big enough to compete with the mightiest of car companies, with capacity to turn out some 5.5 million vehicles a year.
Fiat could become the fifth- or sixth-largest automaker in the world if it can complete its deals with Chrysler and GM, said Michael Robinet, vice president of global vehicle forecasts for CSM Worldwide, an industry consulting firm in Northville, Mich.
Currently, Fiat is considered a smaller, regional player, ranking 10th worldwide in cars and trucks produced.
Fiat's aim eventually is become the world's No. 2 automaker, behind Japan's Toyota, according to Germany's economics minister, who met with Marchionne on Monday in Berlin.
But there are lots of questions about whether Marchionne can pull it off.
The plan is audacious, not the least because Marchionne is hoping to execute it without putting down a cent. Fiat is hoping to take advantage of the crisis in the auto industry by obtaining billions in loan guarantees from the U.S., Canada and various European governments.
"We're in the middle of an automotive yard sale," Robinet said. Marchionne has "gone to a yard sale and picked up the really good stuff."
Fiat's deal to take a big piece of Chrysler could not only save Chrysler, it would give Fiat access to the huge North American market.
And by buying GM's main European operations, Fiat could cut its production and development costs through economies of scale and gain expertise in building midsize and larger cars. Fiat, the maker of Fiats, Alfa Romeos and Ferraris, specializes in small cars.
Marchionne made the rounds in Berlin on Monday, seeking to persuade German Chancellor Angela Merkel and her economics and finance ministers that Fiat can save many of the 25,000 jobs at Germany's Opel, not to mention its supplier network. GM employs some 54,000 in Europe, including at Sweden Saab and Britain's Vauxhall. It is not clear whether Saab would be part of a deal with Fiat.
Max Warburton, a Sanford C. Bernstein auto analyst, questioned whether a collection of loss-making auto companies can generate cash, noting that Fiat's auto business posts a profit only because of its Brazil operations. But the really big question is: Where will the capital come from for the new company?
Warburton suggested that Fiat will need to sell off its "jewel assets," CNH agricultural and construction vehicles and Iveco trucks. Marchionne has ruled that out.
In Germany, Economy Minister Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg said Fiat estimated its short-term financing needs in Europe — stemming from GM's debts and pension obligations — at $6.6 billion to $9.3 billion, which could be covered by loan guarantees from various governments.
"Fiat wants to get into this deal without debts of its own," Guttenberg said.
GM, for its part, has been trying to find investors to help stave off collapse.
"We are talking to them, amongst other parties. Not solely Fiat, but several parties who have an interest in making investment in our European business," GM CEO Fritz Henderson said in an interview Monday with The Associated Press.
While analysts see advantages in a Fiat-Chrysler combination, there is much more skepticism among industry experts and unions in Italy and Germany about the wisdom of a play for Opel. German unions are worried about jobs, and sour about the $2 billion that Fiat walked away with when a previous partnership with GM was dissolved.
Asked what the plan might mean in terms of job losses or plant closings, Guttenberg said Marchionne "hasn't offered any specific numbers yet, but he described them as not being too dramatic."
In a note to investors, Warburton, the industry analyst, said an Opel deal "makes sense if it can be made to function."
"We remain unconvinced that Fiat has the management depth to pull off this very ambitious task," Warburton said, "although we acknowledge that the company clearly keeps its talent obscured."
But Adam Jonas, auto analyst with Morgan Stanley, said if anyone can pull off such a spectacular gambit, it is Marchionne. Jonas said Marchionne is known for putting in long hours and cultivating talented management teams.
Tom Krisher reported from Detroit. AP Auto Writer Kimberly S. Johnson in Detroit, and Associated Press writers Geir Moulson and Patrick McGroarty in Berlin contributed to this report.
6-9-09 UPDATE: 'High court won't block Chrysler sale' (Yahoo news w/slideshow)
Friday, May 8, 2009
For example, the 'Nine Noble Virtues'.
7. Self Reliance
Asatru Folk Assembly:
1. Strength is better than weakness
2. Courage is better than cowardice
3. Joy is better than guilt
4. Honour is better than dishonour
5. Freedom is better than slavery
6. Kinship is better than alienation
7. Realism is better than dogmatism
8. Vigor is better than lifelessness
9. Ancestry is better than universalism
Like the 'Ten Commandments' in Christianity, these principles and many other, much deeper, aspects of Odinism (or Asatru) can be admired and studied. I am aware that the Nine Noble Virtues are guidelines and not "thou shalt nots," and they have no concept of "hell," etc., but my real point is that we can look into any faith and adopt some principles from them. I recently viewed an episode on the History Channel program 'Warriors' with Terry Schappert. It was about the Zulu tribe, and they had a special ceremonial tradition after a battle, in which a warrior is purified in order to go back into society. I thought it was in interesting spiritual concept.
The "Viking Era" was a very small part of the history of what we call Odinism or Asatru. Actually, our ancient Lombard ancestors called what was basically the chief god, usually called Odin, the god of war, as Wotan or Wodan. They were Wotanists or Wodanists, and I mean this was many, many centuries ago. The 'Nine Noble Virtues' was taken from one of the Norse Sagas I believe, and the first one, from the Odinic Rite, was the original.
I would also like to at least mention the "Irminsul" (see image to the right), which was a large carved wooden pillar, which was a very important part of this spirituality. I don't think that it was intrinsically worshipped, but may have been a manner to get in touch with all of the gods. Perhaps someone could clue us in there. It appears that the old Germanic tribes often just used a carved tree trunk for this purpose as well. When the Romans, and later powers, finally mobilized themselves to spread Christianity, lets face it, they often did it via force. The following painting was composed by German painter Heinrich Leutemann in 1882, and was entitled 'The destruction of Irminsul through Charlemagne'. It depicts Wotanists literally being forced to accept Christianity as their Irminsul is demolished.
Did you know that names from the days of the week, which we use every day, are from Norse/Germanic spirituality or gods?
Sunday -- "Sun's Day"
Monday -- "Moon's Day"
Tuesday -- "Tiu's Day"
Wednesday -- "Wodan's Day"
Thursday -- "Thor's Day"
Friday -- "Freya's Day"
Saturday -- "Saturn's Day"
Wodan, Wotan, or Woden, may have originally come from the worship of the Greek god Mercury. It's hard sometimes to substantiate some of these things due to various cultures wanting to maintain the purity or originality of their history. I suppose that if this was true, that it was probably due to influence from the Romans, or possibly the Etruscans. I don't really know.
Mead (from description at Wikipedia): "Mead is a typically alcoholic beverage, made from honey and water via fermentation with yeast. Its alcoholic content may range from that of a mild ale to that of a strong wine. It may be still, carbonated, or sparkling. It may be dry, semi-sweet, or sweet.
"Depending on local traditions and specific recipes, it may be brewed with spices, fruits, or grain mash. It may be produced by fermentation of honey with grain mash; mead may also, like beer, be flavored with hops to produce a bitter, beer-like flavor."
What is amazing is that Mead is so hard to find! It was such a part of our ancestors lives, yet it's difficult to find in the market. I don't think that it would be very difficult to make. It can be purchased online pretty easily. Try Yahoo Shopping. Check the Wikipedia link, as there is much more than we have time to research and cover right now. YouTube has videos on how to make Mead as well.
There is an interesting FAQ, from the Wisconsin Vinland Association, called 'An FAQ: Asatru, Wicca, and paganism', which is quite interesting. However, it's pretty apparent that they are a "Universalist" group, meaning that they have a belief that the traditions of their ancestors belong to all other cultures of the earth just as much as it belongs to them. It's probably a split down the middle as far as pagans of European traditions, between those who are Universalist or Folkish. Folkish means that one's heritage is inherently "theirs," and not belonging to every other culture in the world.
I believe that a European descended person should feel free to study, for example, Shintoism. They may study it, admire it, and even adhere to it; but they can never become a Shintoist because they're not Japanese. It would be extremely disrespectful and dishonorable to try to do this. In the same way, a Japanese person could study and admire Asatru, without trying to co-opt it. Many White Americans flock to Hawaii and force themselves on the native Hawaiian religion, which has caused some of the local Hawaiians to get pretty angry. Again, study, admire, and even adhere to anything, but I believe that it's important for every human being on earth to realize that not everything in the world belongs to YOU. The image above: a Shinto Shrine. Again, don't be afraid to go to YouTube and look up all of these subjects. Many people have downloaded some amazing videos.
I know, this entry has bounced all over the place. I would like to end with an article from the Odinic Rite, entitled 'Images of the Wolf in the Northern Psyche'. It's in PDF, and they don't want it reproduced anywhere without permission, so I will not post the text. It is about the wolf in ancient northern culture and folklore. Actually, much of this folklore survived up to a point in history later than we realize, in some instances. Many ancient Lombard names had a "wulf" ending to them, which comes directly from the reverence of the wolf. I should also mention that this article was written by Heimgest, the director of the Odinic Rite, and I will end this entry with links to four videos of a very interesting interview of him which was conducted.
Interview With a Gothi - Part 1
Interview With a Gothi - Part 2
Interview With a Gothi - Part 3
Interview With a Gothi - Part 4
Thursday, May 7, 2009
THURSDAY 9 JULY 2009
TOWN HALL PORCH
All the day long: Market – Stands
Historical reenactment and craft workshops
15h00 - 19h00: Everyday life situations (EVROPA ANTIQVA, KATERKVA KATTI BROGOS – TEUTA INSUBRIS – LEGIO X)
DES FRANCHISES SQUARE AND PORTE PRETORIANE SQUARE
15h00 - 15h30: BANDA GAITES LLACIN (Des Franchises Square); KINTYRE SCHOOLS PIPE BAND (Porte Pretoriane Square)
CHANOUX SQUARE > REGIONAL LIBRARY
Musical parade towards the library
15h45 - 16h00: BANDA DE GAITES LLACIN - KINTYRE SCHOOLS PIPE BAND
CONFERENCE HALL REGIONAL LIBRARY
16h15 - 17h00: “Aosta and its territory: meeting between indigenous cultures and Rome”
Dott.ssa STELLA BERTARIONE - Archaeologist of the Monuments and Fine Arts Department
PORTE PRETORIANE > REPUBLIC SQUARE
Parade with Music, Dances and Costumes by foot and riding horses
17h00 - 18h00: BANDA DE GAITES LLACIN - KINTYRE SCHOOLS PIPE BAND - DOMINIC GRAHAM SCHOOL IRISH DANCE - EVROPA ANTIQUA - CLAN DELLA GRANDE ORSA - GENS D’YS - GRUPPO STORICO ROMANO PONT-SAINT-MARTIN
21h00: VINCENZO ZITELLO
22h00: MABON (special guest GENS D’YS)
FRIDAY 10 JULY 2009
CHAMONIX MONT-BLANC (F)
PACCARD STREET > BALMAT SQUARE > TRIANGLE DE L'AMITIÉ SQUARE
Parade with Music and Dances
16h30 - 17h15: KINTYRE SCHOOLS PIPE BAND - DOMINIC GRAHAM SCHOOL IRISH DANCE - BANDA DE GAITES LLACIN - GENS D’YS
PLACES Á MUSIQUE!
Music in the Squares
BANDA GAITES LLACIN
Chemin des Alpes Square -17h30
Quai d’Arve - 17h50
Balmat Square - 18h15
KINTYRE SCHOOLS PIPE BAND
Balmat Square - 17h30
Triangle de l’Amitié Square - 17h50
Quai d’Arve - 18h15
DOMINIC GRAHAM SCHOOL IRISH DANCE
Triangle de l’Amitié Square - 17h30
Chemin des Alpes Square - 17h50
TRIANGLE DE L'AMITIÉ SQUARE
Music, Celtic Dances and Concerts
21h00: BANDA GAITES LLACIN
21h30: GENS D’YS - SHOW
22h30: INIS FAIL
FRIDAY 10 JULY 2009
VAL VENY – MIAGE LAKE
09h30: PURTUD BRIDGE (PEUTEREY WOOD) Departure towards the Miage lake
11h00: MIAGE LAKE Ceremony for the fairies of Miage VINCENZO ZITELLO
JARDIN DE L’ANGE
Concerts to show the musical groups
17h00: PHAMIE GOW
From 9h00: Market – Craft Stands
From 10h00: Workshops and Lectures (see specific page) - Info, timetable and registrations at Infopoint
Open Stage – Concerts and Dances with Italian groups
18h00 - 18h45: RITA PARTINI
19h00 - 19h45: BRUNO LE ROUZIC
19h45 - 20h30: RICATTI ACUSTICI
20h30: PHAMIE GOW
22h15: THE CHAIR
00h30: Lighting of Druidic Bonfire - CLAN DELLA GRANDE ORSA
Concerts and Sessions
01.00: “Veilla Celtique”: PHAMIE GOW - THE CHAIR – MABON
SATURDAY 11 JULY 2009
PRÉ-SAINT-DIDIER - VITTORIO EMANUELE II SQUARE
16.30: PHAMIE GOW
Departure “Gran Trail Valdigne” in cooperation with Asd Courmayeur Trailers
09h30: KINTYRE SCHOOLS PIPE BAND - BANDA GAITES LLACIN
ROMA STREET > BROCHEREL SQUARE > JARDIN DE L'ANGE
15h30: KINTYRE SCHOOLS PIPE BAND - DOMINIC GRAHAM SCHOOL IRISH DANCE - BANDA GAITES LLACIN
JARDIN DE L’ANGE
Concerts to show the musical groups
17h00: ADRIANO SANGINETO
17h30: DOMINIC GRAHAM SCHOOL IRISH DANCE
VAL VENY – PEUTEREY WOOD
From 9h00 Market – Craft Stands
From 10h00 Workshops and Lectures (see specific page)
Info, timetable and registrations at Infopoint
Open Stage – Concerts and Dances with Italian groups
18h00 - 18h45: BEATRICE PIGNOLO
19h00 - 19h45: JIG RIG
19h45 - 20h30: RICATTI ACUSTICI
Concerts and Shows
20h30: DOMINIC GRAHAM SCHOOL IRISH DANCE
21h00: KINTYRE SCHOOLS PIPE BAND - BANDA GAITES LLACIN
21h30: THE CHAIR
22h30: SESSION A9
00h30: GREENLANDS – Anthem of Celtic Nations with all the musicians of Celtica
Concerts and Sessions
01h00: “Veilla Celtique”: THE CHAIR – BARRAGE – SESSION A9
SUNDAY 12 JULY 2009
VAL VENY – PEUTEREY WOOD
From 9h00 Market – Craft Stands
From 10h00 Workshops and Lectures (see specific page)
Info, timetable and registrations at Infopoint
CLAN DELLA GRANDE ORSA CAMP
10h00: Celtic Waking up with dark bread and honey from the Aosta Valley
Concerts and Shows
11h30: VINCENZO ZITELLO
12h30: KINTYRE SCHOOLS PIPE BAND
14h00: Ceremony and Goodbye from Celtica 2009 - CLAN DELLA GRANDE ORSA & VINCENZO ZITELLO
14h30: Final recital of the music courses
15h00: MABON (special guest GENS D’YS)
BARD VILLAGE - MULTIPURPOSE ROOM TOWN HALL
15h00: Hydromel – Workshop to prepare Gods' nectar
To attend this workshop you need to have: 1 bottle of 1 L with cork, 300 g honey - the kind you like more -, 2 lemons, a pinch of cinnamon and cloves, a small pot for water, 1 funnel; workshop to be paid by participants, compulsory registrations within 30 June 2009 via e-mail: info@...
BARD VILLAGE - CHURCH PARVIS
16h00: BANDA GAITES LLACIN
15h30: ADRIANO SANGINETO
BARD VILLAGE - STENDHAL ROOM - TOWN HALL
16.30: “Aosta and its territory: meeting between indigenous cultures and Rome”
STELLA BERTARIONE - Archaeologist of the Monuments and Fine Arts Department
BARD VILLAGE - CHURCH PARVIS
Animation – Irish Dances
17h00: KINTYRE SCHOOLS PIPE BAND
17h30: GENS D’YS
BARD FORTRESS – CARLO ALBERTO OPERA SQUARE
Concerts and Shows
20h30: DOMINIC GRAHAM SCHOOL IRISH DANCE
21h00: KINTYRE SCHOOLS PIPE BAND e BANDA GAITES LLACIN
21h15: SESSION A9
Downhill with Music towards Bard Village
23h00: KINTYRE SCHOOLS PIPE BAND - BANDA GAITES LLACIN
Lectures, Workshops and Historical Reenactments
Workshops are free (except for different notice). Nevertheless, following the Celtic principle of 'honourable change', it will be nice - if you want to - to give directly an offer to the artists and craftsmen who have shared with us their art.
FROM FRIDAY 10 TO SUNDAY 12 JULY 2009
VAL VENY – Peuterey Wood – Information and registrations at InfoPoint starting from 10h00
Lectures – Druidic Talks nearby the Menhir
“Druids, the Goddess' guardians - The never-ending feminine in the Celtic world” - Silvano Danesi
“Morrigan and the chaos point - From Kalì Yuga to Change” - Silvano Danesi
“Ancient Myths, Treasure for the Soul” - Silvano Danesi
“Harp to heal: the therapeutic use of the Celtic harp from ancient Bards' stories till nowadays” - Rita Partini
“The Holy Flame of Brigit of Ireland: Saint or Goddess?” - Rita Partini
“Theories about the ancient healing: the healing praxis in Druidic art and its employment in the modern holistic therapeutic system” - Elena Fornari, Mari Corrau, Rita Pasdera
“Ogam and trees: the holy natural symbolism” - Federico Gasparotti
“Craftsman reveals himself: history, technique and creativity” - aCraftsmen of CELTICA
Workshops – Music and Dance
Celtic Dances - Gens d’Ys
Traditional Dances for adults and children - La Cerchia
Traditional Percussions (bones & spoons) - Guido Antoniotti
Workshops – Reenactments and Historical Demonstrations
Strength and Agility Games - La Cerchia
To learn to play the Horn - La Cerchia
Weaving with the planks method - Sagitta Barbarica
Approach to Historical Archery - Sagitta Barbarica (adults)
Metal Working - Sagitta Barbarica
Axe Throw - Sagitta Barbarica
The Cassock Net: from history to making - Luca Bertini
Light weaving: technique and equipment of the Celts - Labarum Bagauda Teuta Laevi
Natural Cosmetics: colours of beauty and of war by the Celts - Labarum Bagauda Teuta Laevi
Celtic Fight Strategies and Technique - Labarum Bagauda Teuta Laevi (adults)
Celtic Coins Exhibition – Frenz Vogel
Workshops for children (up to 12 years old)
Approach to Historical Archery - Sagitta Barbarica
Traditional Dances for children - La Cerchia
Games with the Sword for Celtic warriors - La Cerchia
The Enchanted Forest. Tales, Dances and Graphic – Pictorial Activities - Clan Damhmor
Dancing Fairies and Spirits. Expressive Workshop - Clan Damhmor
Training for throwing the spinning top - Moreno Bartolini
Face painting for children - Maurizia Merati
Night Parade looking for Dwarfs - Clan della Grande Orsa
Rides with Ponies and Horses – A.S.D. El Dorado – Jumping Team
Wednesday, May 6, 2009
Etruscan Religion (from mysteriousetruscans .com)
The basis of Etruscan religion was the fundamental idea that the destiny of man was completely determined by the vagaries of the many deities worshipped by the Etruscans. Every natural phenomenon, such as lightning, the structure of the internal organs of sacrificial animals, or the flight patterns of birds, was therefore an expression of the divine will, and contained a message which could be interpreted by trained priests such as Augurs.
Emerging from this basic concept the Rasenna scrupulously followed a complex code of rituals known by the Romans as the "Disciplina Etrusca." Even up to the fall of the Roman Empire, the Etruscans were regarded by their contemporaries with great respect for their religion and superstitions.
It may have been the fact that Etruscan religious beliefs and practices were so deep-rooted among the Romans that led to the complete destruction of all Etruscan literature as a result of the advent of Christianity. Arnobius, one of the first Christian apologists, living around 300CE, wrote ,"Etruria is the originator and mother of all superstition" .When the Gothic army under Alaric was approaching Rome, the offer made to Pope Innocent I by Etruscan Haruspices was seriously considered by the senate, but finally rejected.
The obvious Eastern Greek influence in Etruscan religion and art from the emergence of the civilisation in the 8th Century BCE, can be interpreted either as evidence of the Etruscan origins in Lydia, or as the influence of subsequent Greek settlement in the prosperous region of Etruria. However it is interpreted, the Etruscan religion was fundamentally unique to the region.
The Etruscan Religion was, like Christianity and Judaism, a revealed religion. An account of the revelation is given by Cicero(On Divination 2.50) . One day, says the legend, in a field near the river Marta in Etruria, a strange event occurred. A divine being rose up from the newly ploughed furrow, a being with the appearance of a child, but with the wisdom of an old man. The startled cry of the ploughman brought lucomones, the priest kings of Etruria hurrying up to the spot. To them, the wise child chanted the sacred doctrine, which they reverently listened to and wrote down, so that this most precious possession could be passed on to their successors. Immediately after the revelation, the miraculous being fell dead and disappeared into the ploughed field. His name was Tages, and he was believed to be the son of Genius and grandson of the highest God, Tinia (or Jupiter as he became known to the Romans). This doctrine was known to the Romans as the Disciplina Etrusca.
From the writings of the Etruscan haruspex Tarquitius around 90 BCE, we also get a glimpse of the prophesy of the nymph Vegoia (Latinised form of the name). This is bound up in the Gramatici veteres, in a corpus of Roman land surveys, We have a passage in which a divinity, the nymph Vergoia, speaks to Arruns Velturnnus:
"You should know that the sea is separated from the earth. When Jupiter claimed the land of Etruria for himself, he decided and commanded the fields to be surveyed and the lands marked out. Knowing the covetousness of man and his worldly greed, he wanted the boundaries of everything to be marked by boundary stones. Those which at any time anyone has placed because of the greed of this eighth - almost the latest - saeculum, arrogating to themselves licence, men with wrongful deceit will violate, touch and move. But if anyone touches or moves a boundary stone, extending his own possessions or diminishing those of someone else, for this crime he will be condemned by the gods. If slaves shall do this, they shall be moved to a lower status by their owner. But if this is done with the knowledge of the master, the household will be immediately uprooted, and the whole of his family will perish. The people responsible will be afflicted by the worst diseases and wounds and their limbs will be weakened. Then even the land will be shaken by storms or whirlwinds and many landslips. The crops will be frequently laid low and cut down by rain and hail, they will perish in the heat of the summer, they will be killed off by blight. There will be civil strife amongst the people. Know that these things happen, when such crimes are committed. Therefore do not be either a deceitful or treacherous. Place restraint in your heart. ..."
The Disciplina Etrusca
The Disciplina Etrusca seems to have comprised three categories of books of fate. The first was that of the Libri Haruspicini, which dealt with divination from the livers of sacrificed animals; the second, the Libri Fulgurates, on the interpretation of thunder and lightning; the third, the Libri Rituales, which covered a variety of matters. They contained, as Festus says, "prescriptions concerning the founding of cities, the consecration of altars and temples, the inviolability of ramparts, the laws relating to city gates, the division into tribes, curiae and centuriae, the constitution and organization of armies, and all other things of this nature concerning war and peace.
Among the Libri Rituales were also three further categories: the Libri Fatales, on the division of time and the life-span of individuals and peoples; the Libri Acherontici, on the world beyond the grave and the rituals for salvation; and finally, the Ostentaria, which gave rules for interpreting signs and portents and laid down the propitiatory and expiatory acts needed to obviate disaster and to placate the gods.
So complex and all-embracing a doctrine naturally required long and laborious study. For this, the Etruscans had special training institutes, among which that at Tarquinii early enjoyed the highest repute. These institutes were much more than priests' seminaries in the modern sense. To judge by their range of studies they were a kind of university with several faculties. For their curricula included not only religious laws and theology, but also the encyclopaedic knowledge required by the priests, which ranged from astronomy and meteorology through zoology, ornithology, and botany to geology and hydraulics. The last subject was the specialty of the aquivices who advised the city-states on all their hydraulic engineering projects. They were expert diviners who knew how to find subterranean water and how to bore wells, how to dig water channels, supply drinking water in the towns, and install irrigation and drainage systems in the fields. In addition they could create artificial reservoirs and they collaborated with other priests who specialized in constructing subterranean corridors and tunneling mountains. In Etruria, as in the ancient East, theological and secular knowledge were not separated. Whatever man set himself to do on earth must be in consonance with the cosmos. Thus all the efforts of the priests were directed upon the heavens when it was necessary to discover the will of the gods in accordance with the sacred doctrine. The orientation and division of space were of crucial importance as much in divination from an animal's liver as in laying the foundation of a temple, in interpreting a shooting star as in surveying land and marking out a garden and field.
Rituals and Planning
Heaven and earth were imagined as being quartered by a great invisible cross consisting of a north-south axis called cardo and an east-west line called decumanus, to use the Latin terms. All ritual and religious observance was based on this division of celestial and terrestrial space. It alone enabled the priests to decipher and understand the signs emanating from the gods. And every sacral and secular undertaking on earth had to be coordinated with it. For the Etruscans believed that auspicious and inauspicious powers were irrevocably and for all eternity located in the four quarters of the sky, in accordance with the cosmic stations of the gods. The east was considered of good augury, because there the highest deities, those favorable to man, had chosen to dwell. The north east was the most auspicious and promised good fortune. In the south the gods of earth and nature ruled. The terrible and merciless gods of the underworld and of fate dwelt, it was believed, in the drear regions of the west, especially in the quarter between north and west, which was the most inauspicious.
The Etruscans even evolved a system of town planning based on these religious concepts, which were likewise reflected in the elaborate ritual prescribed for the foundation of a new city. In Etruria the town laid out in accordance with the sacred rules was considered a minute portion of the cosmos, harmoniously integrated with an all-embracing order governed by the gods.
The priest, after fixing the north-south and east-west lines by the sky, turned to the south and pronounced the words: "This is my front, and this my back, this my left and this my right."
Then wearing his conical hat (which survives today in the form of the Bishop's mitre) and holding his lituus (the Bishop's crook), he solemnly marked out the cross of the cardo and the decumanus.
Belief in Predestination
The Etruscans believed in predestination. Although a postponement is sometimes possible by means of prayer and sacrifice, the end is certain. According to the Libri Fatales as described by Censorinus, Man had allocated to him a cycle of seven times twelve years. Anyone who lived beyond these years, lost the ability to understand the signs of the Gods.
The Etruscans also believed the existence of their people was also limited by a timescale fixed by the gods. According to the doctrine, ten saecula were allotted to the Etruscan name. This proved very accurate, and it is often said that the Etruscan people predicted their own downfall.
Etruscans & Religion (from the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology)
Etruscans believed theirs to be a revealed religion, communicated to them by the gods of the sky, earth, and the underworld. These forces spoke to mortals through nature and its events: the flight of birds, the sound of thunder, the strikes of lightning bolts, and the entrails of sacrificed animals.
The many modes of learning the gods’ messages brought forth different kinds of prophets. Augurs, for example, read the flight of birds. Haruspices scrutinized the livers of sacrificed sheep for signs of divine disapproval. Etruscans were famous for the way they carried out this rite: unlike their contemporaries, they removed the liver from the slaughtered animal before they examined it. After the divination, the animal’s remains were divided among gods, priests, and people, and consumed.
At Etruscan sanctuaries, grateful worshippers heaped offerings on altars or in special pits. An offering might be a piece of jewelry or other prized possession, but it might also be a special kind of object made for votive use. Bronze or terracotta figurines or models were common: images of gods or goddesses, of suppliants, perhaps of a wished-for baby. Most common of all were terracotta models of the body parts for which healing was sought.
The Etruscans knew many kinds of gods, from spirits of nature and the underworld and invisible sky gods to deities who took on human form. Some of the Etruscan gods who were seen and depicted in human form were shared with Romans and Greeks.
Etruscans: Religion and mythology (from history-world.org)
A History of the Etruscan people including their cities, art, society, rulers and contributions to civilization
By Robert Guisepi 2002
The essential ingredient in Etruscan religion was a belief that human life was but one small meaningful element in a universe controlled by gods who manifested their nature and their will in every facet of the natural world as well as in objects created by humans. This belief permeates the Etruscan representational arts, where one finds rich depictions of land, sea, and air, with man integrated into the ambient. Roman writers give repeated evidence that the Etruscans regarded every bird and every berry as a potential source of knowledge of the gods and that they had developed an elaborate lore and attendant rituals for using this knowledge. Their own myths explained the lore as having been communicated by the gods through a prophet, Tages, a miraculous child with the features of a wise old man who sprang from a plowed furrow in the fields of Tarquinii and sang out the elements of what the Romans called the Etrusca Disciplina.
The literary, epigraphic, and monumental sources provide a glimpse of a cosmology whose image of the sky with its subdivisions is reflected in consecrated areas and even in the viscera of animals. The concept of a sacred space or area reserved for a particular deity or purpose was fundamental, as was the corollary theory that such designated areas could correspond to each other. Heaven reflected Earth, and macrocosm echoed microcosm. The celestial dome was divided into 16 compartments inhabited by the various divinities: major gods to the east, astral and terrestrial divine beings to the south, infernal and inauspicious beings to the west, and the most powerful and mysterious gods of destiny to the north. The deities manifested themselves by means of natural phenomena, principally by lightning. They also revealed themselves in the microcosm of the liver of animals (typical is a bronze model of a sheep's liver found near Piacenza, bearing the incised names of divinities in its 16 outside divisions and in its internal divisions).
These conceptions are linked closely to the art of divination for which the Etruscans were especially famous in the ancient world. Public and private actions of any importance were undertaken only after having interrogated the gods; negative or threatening responses necessitated complex preventive or protective ceremonies. The most important form of divination was haruspicy, or hepatoscopy--the study of the details of the viscera, especially the livers, of sacrificial animals. Second in importance was the observation of lightning and of such other celestial phenomena as the flight of birds (also important in the religion of the Umbri and of the Romans). Finally, there was the interpretation of prodigies--extraordinary and marvelous events observed in the sky or on the earth. These practices, extensively adopted by the Romans, are explicitly attributed by the ancient authors to the religion of the Etruscans.
Etruscans recognized numerous deities (the Piacenza liver lists more than 40), and many are unknown today. Their nature was often vague, and references to them are fraught with ambiguity about number, attributes, and even gender. Some of the leading gods were eventually equated with major deities of the Greeks and Romans, as may be seen especially from the labeled representations on Etruscan mirrors. Tin or Tinia was equivalent to Zeus/Jupiter, Uni to Hera/Juno, Sethlans to Hephaestus/Vulcan, Turms to Hermes/Mercury, Turan to Aphrodite/Venus, and Menrva to Athena/Minerva. But their character and mythology often differed sharply from that of their Greek counterparts. Menrva, for example, an immensely popular deity, was regarded as a sponsor of marriage and childbirth, in contrast to the virgin Athena, who was much more concerned with the affairs of males. Many of the gods had healing powers, and many of them had the authority to hurl a thunderbolt. There were also deities of a fairly orthodox Greco-Roman character, such as Hercle (Heracles) and Apulu (Apollo), who were evidently introduced directly from Greece yet came to have their designated spaces and cults.
Tuesday, May 5, 2009
It should be pointed out, again, that the Lombard flag has an Odal Rune in its center, which is actually Etruscan in origin, and it represents the sovereign Northern Italian (Langbard) state. The Romans defeated the Etruscans in war, then absolutely destroyed everything that was Etruscan in the land. It almost reminds me of how Globalists in various nations today, actually attack their own national interests and sovereignty for their personal financial gain. Had this not occurred, history may have ended up being very different than it was. There may have been a permanent Northern Etruria, and the Greeks or Carthaginians may have overtaken the Southern Italian peninsula eventually. In any case, the spirituality of the Etruscans is an area that we do need to take a look at.
Prior to the advance of the Roman Church into the north, there was the Etruscan religion ("Disciplina Etrusca"?; "Etruscan Trinity"?), Celtic witchcraft (and Celtic Druidism?), and Lombard Odinism (Odin, which they called Wotan or Wodan). However, while I find all of this to be very interesting, it was the Etruscan spirituality which was the one that was homegrown and apparently not shared anywhere else (other than some Greek overlap). When we look at Etruscan gods and mythology, we see that it has all the intrigue of the Greek and Norse gods and mythology. The only difference being that the Romans smothered out the Etruscans from their place in history, and therefore cut it off from it's rightful, inherent, and original Greek-like glory.
There really could have developed a permanent Etruria! Rather than moving towards a Roman-style "empire," they could have developed their own nation and would have been able to defeat any invaders. Again, this seems to me to be directly linked with the Roman devastation of Etruria, which was almost like an internal coup d'etat. Sure, they may have later adopted many of the old Etruscan customs, and perhaps held a certain reverence for them, similar to Americans later holding a reverence of the American Indians, but the world is only now beginning to see the significance of their civilization and place in history. I will state it once again, everything of the Etruscans was especially native to basically Northern Italy. Etruscan civilization extended from around Naples, up to southern Lombardy.
Etruscan mythology (Wikipedia)
The Etruscans were a people of unknown origin living in Northern Italy, who were eventually integrated into Roman culture and politically became part of the Roman Republic. The Etruscans had both a religion and a supporting mythology. Many Etruscan beliefs, customs and divinities became part of Roman culture, including the Roman pantheon. The Etruscans believed that their religion had been revealed to them in early days by seers.
Polytheistic belief system
The Etruscan system of belief was an immanent polytheism; that is, all visible phenomena were considered to be a manifestation of divine power and that power was subsided into deities that acted continually on the world of man and could be dissuaded or persuaded in favor of human affairs. Three layers are evident in the extensive Etruscan art motifs. One appears to be divinities of an indigenous nature: Catha and Usil, the sun, Tivr, the moon, Selvans, a civil god, Turan, the goddess of love, Laran, the god of war, Leinth, the goddess of death, Maris, Thalna, Turms and the ever-popular Fufluns, whose name is related in some unknown way to the city of Populonia and the populus Romanus. Perhaps he was the god of the people.
Ruling over this pantheon of lesser deities were higher ones that seem to reflect the Indo-European system: Tin or Tinia, the sky, Uni his wife (Juno), and Cel, the earth goddess. In addition the Greek gods were taken into the Etruscan system: Aritimi (Artemis), Menrva (Minerva; Latin name for Athena), and Pacha (Bacchus; Latin name for Dionysus) during the Orientalising Period of 850-650 BCE. The heroes taken from Homer also appear extensively in art motifs.
The Etruscans believed in intimate contact with divinity. They did nothing without proper consultation with the gods and signs from them. These practices were taken over in total by the Romans. A god was called an ais (later eis) which in the plural is aisar. Where they were was a fanu or luth, a sacred place, such as a favi, a grave or temple. There one would need to make a fler (plural flerchva) "offering".
Around the mun or muni, the tombs, were the man or mani (Latin Manes), the souls of the ancestors. In iconography after the 5th century BC, the deceased are shown traveling to the underworld. In several instances of Etruscan art, such as in the Francois Tomb, a spirit of the dead is identified by the term hinthial (literally "(one who is) underneath"). A special magistrate, the cechase, looked after the cecha, or rath, sacred things. Every man, however, had his religious responsibilities, which were expressed in an alumnathe or slecaches, a sacred society. No public event was conducted without the netsvis, the haruspex, or his female equivalent, the nethsra. They read the bumps on the liver of a properly sacrificed sheep. We have a model of a liver made of bronze, whose religious significance is still a matter of heated debate, marked into sections which perhaps are meant to explain what the bump in that region should mean. Divination through haruspicy is a tradition originating from the Fertile Crescent.
Beliefs of the hereafter
Like the Egyptians, the Etruscans believed in eternal life, but prosperity there was linked to funeral prosperity here. The tombs in many cases imitated domestic structures and were characterized by spacious chambers, wall paintings and grave furniture. Most Etruscan tombs have been plundered. In the tomb, especially on the sarcophagus, was a representation of the dead person in his or her prime, probably as they wanted to be in the hereafter. Some of the statuary is the finest and most realistic of any. We have no problem visualizing the appearance of the Etruscans. They wanted us to see them smiling and intimate with their kith and kin around them, as we do.
The mythology is attested by a number of sources.
The primary trinity included Tinia, Uni and Menrva.
List of Etruscan mythological figures
The names below were taken mainly from Etruscan "picture bilinguals", which are Etruscan call-outs on art depicting mythological scenes or motifs. Several different media provide names. Variants of the names are given, reflecting differences in language in different localities and times.
Many of the names are Etruscan spellings (and pronunciations) of Greek names. The themes may or may not be entirely Greek. Etruscans frequently added their own themes to Greek myths. The same may be said of native Italic names rendered into Etruscan. Some names are entirely Etruscan. Which is which is often a topic of debate in the international forum of scholarship.
The Etruscan equivalent of the Greek god, Apollo.
Equated with the Greek goddess, Artemis. Infrequently depicted in Etruscan art.
Etruscan god of wine, identified with Dionysus. The name is used in the expressions Fufluns Pacha (Bacchus) and Fufluns Pachie. Puplona (Populonia) was named from Fufluns.
With Perseus, the main Etruscan hero, the adopted son of Uni/Juno, who suckled the adult Hercle. His image appears more often than any other on Etruscan carved hardstones. His name appears on the bronze Piacenza Liver, used for divination (hepatoscopy), a major element of Etruscan religious practice. His Etruscan epithet, sometimes substituted for his name, is Calanice, "beautiful victory", derived from Greek Kallinikos
Etruscan God of war.
One of a class of deities, plural Lasas, mainly female, but sometimes male, from which the Roman Lares came. Where the latter were the guardians of the dead, the Etruscan originals formed the court of Turan. Lasa often precedes an epithet referring to a particular deity: Lasa Sitmica, Lasa Achununa, Lasa Racuneta, Lasa Thimrae, Lasa Vecuvia.
Etruscan class of spirits representing "the dead" and yet not the same as a hinthial, "ghost." From the Mani came the Latin Manes, which are both "the good" and the deified spirits of the dead.
The Etruscan original to the Roman Minerva, made into Greek Athena.
Italic divinity, probably Umbrian, of springs and water, identified with Greek Poseidon and Roman Neptune, from which the name comes. It occurs in the expression flere Nethuns, "the divinity of Nethuns."
God who appears in the expression Selvansl Tularias, "Selvans of the boundaries", which identifies him as a god of boundaries. The name is borrowed from the Roman god, Silvanus.
An Etruscan culture hero who, with his brother, Tyrrhenus, founded the Etruscan Federation of twelve cities.
Tinia, Tina, Tin
Chief Etruscan god, the ruler of the skies, husband of Uni, and father of Hercle, identified with the Greek Zeus and Roman Jupiter well within the Etruscan window of ascendance, as the Etruscan kings built the first temple of Jupiter at Rome. Called apa, "father" in inscriptions (parallel to the -piter in Ju-piter), he has most of the attributes of his Indo-European counterpart, with whom some have postulated a more remote linguistic connection. The name means "day" in Etruscan. He is the god of boundaries and justice. He is depicted as a young, bearded male, seated or standing at the center of the scene, grasping a stock of thunderbolts. According to Latin literature, the bolts are of three types: for warning, good or bad interventions, and drastic catastrophes. Unlike Zeus, Tin needs the permission of the Dii Consentes (consultant gods) and Dii Involuti (hidden gods) to wield the last two categories. A further epithet, Calusna (of Calu), hints at a connection to wolves or dogs and the underworld. In post-classical Tuscan folklore he became an evil spirit, Tigna, who causes lightning strikes, hail, rain, whirlwinds and mildew.
Etruscan goddess identified with Greek Aphrodite and Roman Venus. She appears in the expression, Turan ati, "Mother Turan", equivalent to Venus Genetrix. Her name is a noun meaning "the act of giving" in Etruscan, based on the verb stem tur- 'to give.'
Etruscan god identified with Greek Hermes and Roman Mercurius. In his capacity as guide to the ghost of Tiresias, who has been summoned by Odysseus, he is Turms Aitas, "Turms Hades."
Supreme goddess of the Etruscan pantheon, wife of Tinia, mother of Hercle, and patroness of Perugia. With Tinia and Menrva, she was a member of the ruling triad of Etruscan deities. Uni was the equivalent of the Roman Juno (Iuno), whose name Uni may be derived from, and the Greek Hera.
Etruscan winged demon of the underworld often depicted in the company of Charun. She could be present at the moment of death, and frequently acted as a guide of the deceased to the underworld.
List of Etruscan mythological figures
Greek deities and their Roman and Etruscan counterparts